Shoppers on Toronto

A economic one.

Woman shopping at a shopping mall in the United States

The shopping experience can range from delightful to terrible, based on a variety of factors including how the customer is treated, convenience, and mood.[1]

The shopping experience can also be influenced by other shoppers. For example, research from a field experiment found that male and female shoppers who were accidentally touched from behind by other shoppers left a store earlier than people who had not been touched and evaluated brands more negatively, resulting in the Accidental Interpersonal Touch effect.[2]

“Window shopping” is browsing with no intent to purchase, either as a recreational activity or to plan a later purchase.[citation needed]

According to a 2000 report, in New York women purchase 80% of all consumer goods and influence 80% of health-care decisions.[3]

Contents

[edit] Shopping in ancient societies

In ancient Rome, there was Trajan’s Market with tabernae that served as retailing units. Shopping lists are known to be used by Romans as one was discovered by Hadrian’s wall dated back to 75–125 AD and written for a soldier.[4]

[edit] Shopping venues

[edit] Shopping hubs

A larger commercial businesses.

Window shopping in Toronto in 1937

Typical examples include bazaars.

[edit] Stores

Stores are divided into multiple categories of stores which sell a selected set of goods or services. Usually they are tiered by target demographics based on the disposable income of the shopper. They can be tiered from cheap to pricey.

Some shops sell secondhand goods. Often the public can also sell goods to such shops. In other cases, especially in the case of a surplus stores.

Many shops are part of a shopping center that carry the same restaurant chains.

Various types of retail stores that specialize in the selling of goods related to a theme include supermarkets.

Other stores such as horizontally related to each other.

[edit] History of modern shopping

Fairs and markets have a long history that started when man felt the need to exchange goods. People would shop for goods at a weekly market in nearby towns. Then shops began to be permanently established. Shops were specialized, e.g. a bakery, a butchery, a grocer. Then supermarkets appeared.

There have been three major phases in the shopping / trading world in the last 100 years. In a way, these link up into a full circle.

1. Customers would be served by the shopkeeper, who would retrieve all the goods on their shopping list. Shops would often deliver the goods to the customers’ homes.

2. Customers have to select goods, retrieve them off the shelves using self-service, and even pack their own goods. Customers deliver their own goods.

3. Customers select goods via the Internet. The goods are delivered to their homes as in phase one.

[edit] Shopping from home

[edit] Home shopping

Home online shopping. Online shopping has completely redefined the way people make their buying decisions; the Internet provides access to a lot of information about a particular product, which can be looked at, evaluated, and comparison-priced at any given time. Online shopping allows the buyer to save the time and expense, which would have been spent traveling to the store or mall.

[edit] Neighborhood shopping

Sometimes United States.

[edit] Party shopping

The party plan is a method of marketing products by hosting a social event, using the event to display and demonstrate the product or products to those gathered, and then to take orders for the products before the gathering ends.

[edit] Shopping Activity

[edit] Regulation

Most business have shopping hours but other are open around the clock. Some nations regulate the operation of businesses for religious reasons and do not allow shopping on particular days or dates.

[edit] Shopping seasons

Shopping frenzies are periods of time where a burst of spending occurs—typically near holidays in the Christmas shopping being the biggest shopping spending season, starting as early as October and continuing until after Christmas.

Some War on Christmas.

The National Retail Federation (NRF) also highlights the importance of back-to-school shopping for retailers which comes second behind holiday shopping, when buyers often buy clothing and school supplies for their children.[5] In 2006, Americans spend over $17 billion on their children, according to a NRF survey.[citation needed]

[edit] Pricing and negotiation

The product by the manufacturer.

In Western countries, retail price points.

Often, prices are fixed and economic surplus will be divided between consumers and producers. Neither party has a clear advantage because the threat of no sale exists, in which case the surplus would vanish for both.

When price comparison websites to find the best price and/or to make a decision about who or where to buy from.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Arnold, Mark J.; Kristy E. Reynolds, Nicole Ponderc, Jason E. Lueg (August 2005). “Customer delight in a retail context: investigating delightful and terrible shopping experiences”. Journal of Business Research 58 (8): 1132–1145. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2004.01.006. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0148296304000372. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  2. ^ Martin, Brett A. S. (2012), “A Stranger’s Touch: Effects of Accidental Interpersonal Touch on Consumer Evaluations and Shopping Time”, Journal of Consumer Research, 39 (June), 174-184.
  3. ^ Popcorn, Faith and Hyperion, Lys Marigold (2000) EVEolution The Eight Truths of Marketing to Women New York. (ISBN 0-79)
  4. ^ “Roman shopping list deciphered”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2001-03-05. Archived from the original on 2008-03-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20080303020753/http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s253805.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
  5. ^ Kavilanz, Parija B. (2007-08-09). “Back-to-school sales’ mixed grades”. CNNMoney.com (CNN). http://money.cnn.com/2007/08/09/news/economy/July_retailsales/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-27.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Shopping, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.